The largest and most thorough study to date seeking to understand healthy and sustainable life paths for sexual minorities, including faith-based individuals.
The 4 Options Survey is to date the largest and most thorough study seeking to understand healthy and sustainable life paths for sexual minorities, including faith-based individuals to investigate if or how religious/spiritual issues are involved in respondents’ level of satisfaction and relationship or single status.
This survey was designed to identify important aspects of life and relationships for those who experience (or have experienced) same-sex sexual attractions and identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer (LGBQ), heterosexual, or with another sexual identity or reject a label, and analyze if there are any similarities or differences between those who are: 1) Single and celibate; 2) Single and not celibate; 3) In a heterosexual/mixed-orientation relationship; or 4) In a same-sex relationship.
Sexuality and sexual identity can be personally sensitive and politically divisive. In order to be as comprehensive and inclusive as possible of different individuals’ and communities’ experiences, an ideologically diverse research team assembled to collaborate in the spirit of the work of social psychologist Jonathan Haidt and others in speaking to the importance of political diversity to advancing social science (see “Political diversity will improve social psychological science,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, 1-58).
News & Magazine Articles Featuring the 4 Options Survey:
Peer-Reviewed Research Based on 4 Options Survey Results:
- Lefevor, G. T., Beckstead, A. L., Schow, R., Raynes, M., Mansfield, T. R. & Rosik, C. H. (2019). Satisfaction and Health in Four Sexual Identity Relationship Options. The Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, Volume 45, Issue 5, Pgs 355-369 (summary)
- Lefevor, G. T., Skidmore, S. J., McGraw, J. S.,Davis, E. B., & Mansfield, T. R. (2021). Religiousness and Minority Stress in Conservatively Religious Sexual Minorities: Lessons from Latter-day Saints, The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion,
- Lefevor, G. T., Blaber, I. P., Huffman, C. E., Schow, R. L., Beckstead, A. L., Raynes, M., & Rosik, C. H. (2020). The role of religiousness and beliefs about sexuality in well-being among sexual minority mormons. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 12(4), 460–470 (summary)
- Lefevor, G. T., Schow, R. L., Beckstead, A. L., Raynes, M., Young, N. T., & Rosik, C. H. (2021). Domains related to four single/relationship options among sexual minorities raised conservatively religious. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 8(2), 112–131 (summary)
- Bridges, J. G., Lefevor, G. T., Schow, R. L., & Rosik, C. H. (2020). Identity Affirmation and Mental Health among Sexual Minorities: A Raised-Mormon Sample. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 293-311
- Lefevor, G. T., Sorrell, S. A., Kappers, G., Plunk, A., Schow, R. L., Rosik, C. H., & Beckstead, A. L. (2020). Same-Sex Attracted, Not LGBQ: The Associations of Sexual Identity Labeling on Religiousness, Sexuality, and Health Among Mormons. Journal of Homosexuality, 67(7): 940-964
- Rosik, C. H., Lefevor, G. T., & Beckstead, A. L. (2021). Sexual Minorities who Reject an LGB Identity: Who Are They and Why Does It Matter? Issues in Law and Medicine, 36(1):27-43.
- Rosik, C. H., Lefevor, G. T., & Beckstead, A. L. (2022). Sexual minorities responding to sexual orientation distress: Examining 33 methods and the effects of sexual identity labeling and theological viewpoint. Spirituality in Clinical Practice.
- Rosik, C. H., Lefevor, G. T., McGraw, J. S., & Beckstead, A. L. (2021). Is Conservative Religiousness Inherently Associated with Poorer Health for Sexual Minorities? Journal of Religion and Health
- Bridges, J. G., Lefevor, G. T., & Schow, R. L. (2019). Sexual Satisfaction and Mental Health in Mixed-Orientation Relationships: A Mormon Sample of Sexual Minority Partners. Journal of Bisexuality, (19)4, Pages 515-538
- Lefevor, G. T., S. J., McGraw, & Skidmore (2022). Suicidal ideation among active and nonactive/former Latter-day Saint sexual minorities. Journal of Community Psychology, (50), 445-464
- Skidmore, S. J., Lefevor, G. T., & Dillon, F. R. (2022). Belongingness and depression among LGBQ Mormons: The moderating effect of internalized homonegativity, Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health (Published online: 20 Jun 2022)